The global average temperature 1850-2018. Blue stripes represent temperatures below average (1971-2000) and red stripes warmer than average. Graphics: Prof. Ed Hawkins (University of Reading), https://showyourstripes.info/

Theme Page: Climate Change

On this page you will find material relating to climate change, energy and security.

Year 2020 was critical for the climate in numerous ways. The framework of rules to realise the Paris Agreement is to be put in place, in order to keep the global temperature rise below two degrees. The greenhouse gas emission curve needs to be reversed and new nationally determined contributions are to be presented.

However, in order to limit the spread of the coronavirus COVID-19, many of the important environment and climate conferences have been postponed to 2021. One of the affected conferences is the big COP26 which will take place in november 2021.

On this page you will find analyses of the consequences of the pandemic on international climate politics, as well as other current climate issues.


Elin Jakobsson and Margareta Wahlström on climate migrants, how the international community is handling the matter and why those escaping natural disasters are not labeled refugees.

Isabella Parling and Hanna Waerland-Fager on youth, climate and security (Swedish):

Niklas Bremberg and Malin Mobjörk on climate related security risks (Swedish):

Gunilla Reischl and Elin Jakobsson on the covid pandemic's effect on international climate politics (Swedish):

Elin Jakobsson on the connection between climate change and migration (Swedish):


Human Rights and Climate Change: Are States Violating the Right to Life by Not Cutting Emissions?


Parling, I. (2021). Human Rights and Climate Change: Are States Violating the Right to Life by Not Cutting Emissions? UI Paper No. 3, March 2021.


Are states' inaction to limit climate change a violation of the right to life? Isabella Parling explores the matter in her latest UI Paper.



Berglund, S. (2020)."Coronakrisen visar vägen för klimatpolitiken". Article in Utrikesmagasinet. (Swedish)


The pandemic doesn't limit climate change in itself. But it has given us important clues in how to make the transition to a sustainable society possible, writes Sofie Berglund.


Berglund, S. (2020). "Klimatfrågor får fäste i säkerhetsrådet". Article in Utrikesmagasinet. (Swedish)


Despite the pandemic, it seems that Germany has not only been able to push for climate security issues during its last presidency in the UN Security Council - the country seems to have established the matter as a Security Council issue, writes Sofie Berglund.


Bremberg, N. et al. (2020). Säkerhet i klimatkrisens spår. Världspolitikens Dagsfrågor, Nr 7-8 2020. (Swedish)


How climate change is affecting human and national security depends on a variety of factors, including economical, social, geographical and political. More knowledge is needed about these complicated relationships in order to meet climate related security risks, writes Niklas Bremberg et al.

corona climate article


Jakobsson, E. & Reischl, G. (2020). "Coronakrisen sätter käppar i hjulet för klimatarbetet". Article in Utrikesmagasinet (Swedish).


2020 was supposed to be the year of climate action. Then the corona crisis happened. Elin Jakobsson and Gunilla Reischl analyse the pandemic's effect on international climate politics.

Climate and Migration


Jakobsson, E. (2020)Climate Change and Migration: Policy Approaches for a Sustainable Future. European Liberal Forum/Fores.


How is climate change and migration connected? Elin Jakobsson presents an overview in a report for the think tank Fores.


Berglund, S. (2020). Reaching Climate Security - How Climate Change Moved up the Security Council Agenda. UI Paper no. 3, March 2020.


How is the most powerful UN organ handling climate change? That is what Sofie Berglund asks in her latest UI Paper.


Eriksson, J. & Reischl, G. (2019). Worlds apart, worlds together: converging and diverging frames in climate and energy governance. Globalizations, 16:1, 67-82.


This article by Gunilla Reischl and Johan Eriksson highlights a crucial yet overlooked explanation to the divide between energy and climate governance, namely how issues are framed, i.e. how problems are defined, how causes are diagnosed, what moral judgements are made, and what – if any – remedies are promoted.


Bremberg, N. (2018). European regional organizations and climate-related security risks: EU, OSCE and NATO. SIPRI No. 2018/1.


Under which circumstances do intergovernmental organisations address climate-related security threats effectively? Niklas Bremberg analyses three organisations with security mandate in this SIPRI Insights.




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